Chapter V

Mental and behavioural disorders

Mental retardation

A condition of arrested or incomplete development of the mind, which is especially characterized by impairment of skills manifested during the developmental period, skills which contribute to the overall level of intelligence, i.e. cognitive, language, motor, and social abilities. Retardation can occur with or without any other mental or physical condition.

Degrees of mental retardation are conventionally estimated by standardized intelligence tests. These can be supplemented by scales assessing social adaptation in a given environment. These measures provide an approximate indication of the degree of mental retardation. The diagnosis will also depend on the overall assessment of intellectual functioning by a skilled diagnostician.

Intellectual abilities and social adaptation may change over time, and, however poor, may improve as a result of training and rehabilitation. Diagnosis should be based on the current levels of functioning.

The following fourth-character subdivisions are for use with categories F70-F79 to identify the extent of impairment of behaviour:
.0 With the statement of no, or minimal, impairment of behaviour
.1 Significant impairment of behaviour requiring attention or treatment
.8 Other impairments of behaviour
.9 Without mention of impairment of behaviour
Use additional code, if desired, to identify associated conditions such as autism, other developmental disorders, epilepsy, conduct disorders, or severe physical handicap.

F70 Mild mental retardation
[See before F70 for subdivisions ]
Approximate IQ range of 50 to 69 (in adults, mental age from 9 to under 12 years). Likely to result in some learning difficulties in school. Many adults will be able to work and maintain good social relationships and contribute to society.
Includes: feeble-mindedness
mild mental subnormality

F71 Moderate mental retardation
[See before F70 for subdivisions ]
Approximate IQ range of 35 to 49 (in adults, mental age from 6 to under 9 years). Likely to result in marked developmental delays in childhood but most can learn to develop some degree of independence in self-care and acquire adequate communication and academic skills. Adults will need varying degrees of support to live and work in the community.
Includes: moderate mental subnormality

F72 Severe mental retardation
[See before F70 for subdivisions ]
Approximate IQ range of 20 to 34 (in adults, mental age from 3 to under 6 years). Likely to result in continuous need of support.
Includes: severe mental subnormality

F73 Profound mental retardation
[See before F70 for subdivisions ]
IQ under 20 (in adults, mental age below 3 years). Results in severe limitation in self-care, continence, communication and mobility.
Includes: profound mental subnormality

F78 Other mental retardation
[See before F70 for subdivisions ]

F79 Unspecified mental retardation
[See before F70 for subdivisions ]
Includes: mental:
· deficiency NOS
· subnormality NOS